Classic English Literature Research Paper
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Free Research Paper on English Literature
That entire work that artists do creates symbols through which we all communicate (Dewey, Cooley, Park and Mead 56). There exists no “true” or “real” economic, political or religious meaning behind the symbols that are used in communication. The mode by which we communicate signifies how we relate, and therefore how we satisfy our needs. Criticism is vital in understanding and one must pass from negative to positive criticism. This will assist in understanding the society and hence talk about the power of style in life, and about social power as based in the power of status honor. The initial step as indicated by Weber is that we must identify by close analysis of his work how he arrived to his conclusions.
Max was a German political economist and a sociologist who influenced social theory and research. He put more emphasis on the discipline of sociology. He presented sociology as non empirical. It must study and analyze social action using interpretive ways that are based on understanding purposes and meanings that people attach to their actions. Many regard him as one of three people who influenced modern social science a lot. The main concern for Weber was to understand the process of secularization and rationalization that have been associated with modernity and capitalism.
He proposed about ascetic Protestantism in one of his books that was focusing on protestant ethnncism and the spirit of capitalism. In this book, he associated ascetic Protestantism with the following vices in the society i.e. Bureaucracy, capitalism, and rational legal non states mainly in the western nations. He emphasized on the need to understand cultural differences which are incorporated into the religion so as to be capable to comprehend the origin of capitalism. Protestant ethic was one of the earlier investigations done by Weber on the world of religion. He studied the following religions as part of his studies; religions of India, religions of china and the ancient Judaism. The Chinese used Confucianism and Taoism, the Indians used sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism, and the ancient Judaism used oriental and occidental religions. German idealism influenced Weber’s thinking. He used Kantian ethics.
Weber’s main concern was the question of subjectivity and objectivity. He distinguished social behavior from social action that has to be understood by how individuals subjectively relate to one another. He described rationalization as an individual’s freedom in the rational community. He classified authority into three types; traditional, charismatic and rational legal. The rational leadership is the most common in the modern day society. Rationalization is also seen in the economy through capitalism. It relied on changes in religion, culture, psychology and ethics that took place for the initial moment in the western culture.
Social stratification was composed of three components; social class that determined relationship between people, party class that represents affiliation in the political class and status class that was based on non economical aspects e.g. prestige and honor. He advocated for charismatic leadership that would put peoples interest before own interest.
MYTH OF CHARISMA
Charisma refers to the personal attributes that identify an individual as unique in his leadership skills. Various myths have been advocated to try and explain the origin of charisma. Many believe that charisma is inborn while others believe that charisma incorporates a lot of aspects that should be learnt and practiced over a period of time to reach perfection levels. Richard Wiseman gave his advice on some attributes that an individual needs to work on so as improve has or her charisma. These attributes are;
Have an open body posture. Always keep your hands away from the face at all time you are talking and addressing people. You should always stand up straight, in a relaxed posture with hands apart and palms pointing forwards or upwards.
Maintain an eye contact when addressing an individual. Pay attention to them and let them distinguish that they matter and you enjoy being around them. Always develop a positive attitude and nod in agreement to what they are saying. Briefly touch them especially on upper arm to show that you care about them.
When addressing a group, display confidence in yourself,. Move around and show that you are enjoying what you are doing. Look at all places in the room paying special attention to everyone present. Do not focus your attention to particular people in the group.
Ensure that your message is unique and does not try to maintain any status quo. It should be new, simple to understand and counter-intuitive.
Ensure that you are clear in your speech, articulate and forceful. Evoke some imagination and use a moderate tempo. Slow the tone occasionally to create some tension and put emphasis on strong points.
THE SERVANT LEADER
Servant leadership was a philosophy brought into limelight by Robert Greenleaf. These are leaders who exhibit strong leadership skills in propelling their organizations to meet the short term and long term goals. They ensure good handling of their employees by ensuring that they are well motivated and are incorporated into the decision making roles of the organization. Through this, the employees will in turn handle the clients in very professional ways increasing the market base for the company and maintaining their loyalty. They ensure a company’s financial and humasn resource are well managed leading to good productivity and increased returns.
The following are some characteristics of servant leaders:
– They have good listening skills- a good leader should pay attention to the verbal and non verbal communication from the company’s employees as well as the customers. They should come up with ways to address all the issues raised by their employees and customers. A company that is sensitive to its employees and customers needs will always be successful.
– They should be empathetic- a good leader should view his or her employees as normal human beings that experience the day to day problems in life. A good leader should be empathetic to employees who are faced by problems in life and come help them wherever possible.
– They should have strong persuasion skills- they should come up with good ideas and bring other people on board to support their initiative. They should be able to hit the road and convince other people that their idea is meant for the benefits of all.
– They should have good foresight skills- based on their experiences; they should be able to predict the outcome of an activity its members are taking part in. this will enable them detect a problem in advance and come with remedies before it is late to correct.
– They should be good stewards- they should always act as the heads of the people they are leading. They should always be present to offer help and their opinions wherever difficulties arise among their subordinates. they should also be protective of their people from external forces that may hinder their productivity
– They should show commitment towards ensuring growth of their people. They show come up with policies that are friendly to the people and ensure their positive growth.
– They should have self awareness- they should be able to view and analyze situations in an integrated and a holistic position. Through this, he will be able to have a good perceptive of principles and values.
Through excellent management skills, a leader will motivate his employees and they will be able to identify with the enterprise and its leadership. It can be used to ensure returns on investment on the people you are leading. Some of the short comings experienced by servant leaders is that their attributes are too demanding and only a few can fulfill them. It is also a long term application that requires a lot of time to implement.
MOVIE REVIEW – AMAZING GRACE
This movie is about servant leadership and Christianity. John Newton was a sinner and he believed that Christ is a great savior. William Wilberforce was a charismatic leader. He was a staunch oppose of slave trade. He believed that all people were the same and every one deserved to be treated with a lot of dignity and respect. He was a strong advocate of people’s rights and believed that no one in authority had the power to deny people their rights. The movie is a great inspiration to many. It teaches us that God created us equally and no one was supposed to be discriminated. William was a servant leader. He usually listened to peoples complaints and addressed them appropriately. He was elected to parliament at a tender age of 21 years. He is an example of how young people can be used to change the world through their good deeds. Due to his strong stand against slavery and oppression of people, he faced a lot of opposition from majority of his colleagues who advocated for these vices in the society.
He went a long to way to stand and speak for those who might not articulate for themselves and be heard. He endured a lot of negative criticisms but he did not stop his urge to see a society with good leadership virtues. He was able to influence the behavior of many of his peers positively. He had strong moral values that led him tom exhibit strong leadership. Effective leaders are supposed to influence their subordinates positively and Wilberforce scored highly in these qualities. From the movie it is very clear that superior leaders are not instinctive but are mounded to become better through life experiences. Provided a leader has the willpower to serve his people, these virtues will be evident. Wilberforce was very determined to bring positive change to his society. People should understand that for one to be able to move forward, they must leave their past behind them. We should be able to examine the present and effect some change. We should know that it is the present that accounts since we are not guaranteed about the tomorrow. We should understand that we are one race and treat each other as we expect them to treat us. When a good leader fails, he does not fail alone, instead he also fails the people he is leading. Leaders are held high in the society and many look up to them for good guidance. It is to this extent that they should uphold good moral standards that people can emulate from them.
Leaders enjoy some privileges that might be so tempting for them to misuse. This should not be allowed to happen. They should always think about the consequences of their actions. William Wilberforce was a perfect example of a servant leader that should be emulated by all leaders in the modern society.
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