Human Growth and Development Essay
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Parents expecting a baby are highly encouraged to familiarize themselves with the following terms involved in the growth and development of their baby.
DNA is the genetic code of every living organism. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is found in the nucleus of the cell. This genetic code is passed from the parents to their offspring.
Genes are hereditary information contained in the DNA, and are responsible for the characteristics that parents to their offspring. These characteristics are known as traits. The growth process in the body is work of the genes.
Meiosis is a process which results in the halving of chromosomes in the nucleus. It is the creation of cells known as germ cell which consist of the egg and the sperm. The diversity of the traits of a child is as a result of meiosis.
Genotype is the totality of genes passed from parents to their offspring. Genotypes bring about the similarities and resemblance of the parents and their children.
Phenotype is responsible for how the child appears physically to the world. It is also responsible for the behavioral mannerism of the child and its interaction with the environment.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is the sudden death of an infant while still in its sleep. The place which the infant sleeps and the sleeping position are linked to sudden death of the infant.
Fine motor skills encompass the development of the child’s hand muscles. Fine motor skills activities include: tying his/her shoes, practice drawing and painting, play a musical instrument.
Sensation in a child is importance in its development. When a child is unable to use its sensory functions in the normal way, it is considered to be abnormal. These sensations include: hearing, taste, smell, sight and touch.
Perception is the ability of a child to perceive its environment. Perception helps a child to interact with its environment by responding to the various stimulations it encounters.
Habituation in infants is the ability of the child to tolerate certain stimulations from its environment. The child forms a habit toward those stimuli.
Attention is the ability and power of a child to concentrate on what is happening in its immediate environment.
The emotional state of the infant is highly determine by it environment. Emotions which the infant expresses carry lots of information about the state it’s in. Parents should be able to read the feelings expressed by their child so that they can act accordingly.
The cry of an infant expresses different emotions. A basic cry is the normal cry that a child exhibits when it wants to seek attention. This is a cry which involves short lapses of rest before another cry. When a baby makes a loud cry which is accompanied by the baby holding its breath, such a cry expresses pain. It is referred to as a pain cry.
Parents should also be observant of the kinds of smiles they exhibit. The reflexive smile is an involuntary smile without any stimulation. It usually occurs in the first few months after the baby is born. The social smile is one which is exhibited in the initial phases of the development and growth of the baby.
Stranger anxiety is a normal phase in an infant’s life. The infant tends to resist strangers from holding them or coming near them.
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